According to ancient myths; Ephesus, was founded by female warriors known as the Amazon. It is thought that its name came from Apzas, a city in the kingdom of Arzawa, which means the city of Mother Goddess.
The Carian and
On the other hand, archaeological evidence shows that indigenous people lived in the region until the end of the 2nd millennium BC. This place is probably
It is highly probable that the first colonists from the Greek island settled along the eastern shore of the Aegean Sea today, what is now called Ionia. The cities of Ionia evolve after the Ionia migrations join a confederation under the leadership of Ephesus. During the reign of Lydian King Croesus, Ephesus became one of the richest cities of the Mediterranean world.
The defeat of the Lydian King Croesus by the Persian King Kyros paved the way for the spread of Persian sovereignty over the entire Aegean coastline
At the beginning of the 5th century, when the cities of Ionia rose up against the Persians, they quickly separated from the others and thus were saved from being destroyed.
When Ephesus entered a period of peace and tranqui of fifty years, it remained under Persian rule until the reign of Alexander the Great in 334 BC. Lysimakhos gets ready to develop the city he called Arsinoeia after his wife Arsinoe. By building a new port, a defensive wall on the slopes of Mount Panayır and Mount Nightingale, the city runs 2.5 km southwest.
In 281 BC, the city was rebuilt in the name of Ephesus and became one of the most important commercial ports of the Mediterranean. In 129 BC, King Attalos of Pergamum inherited his kingdom to the Romans for the sake of joining the entire region as an Asian state to the Roman Empire, and they benefited from the conditions of this will.
Ephesus became a very important trade center in the period of Augustus and after. Historian Aelius Aristes describes Ephesus as the most important trade center in Asia.
At the same time, with the second philosophy school in Aegean Region, it is a leading political and intellectual centre. Ephesus enjoys the privileged position where the East meets the West with its exceptionally good climate, and it also has the importance of having the Artemis cult. Artemision also had an economic role, apart from civilization. It became increasingly an investment because of being multifunctional as a bank, the most important local landlord and being a refuge for refugees.
From the 1st century onwards, Ephesus was visited by a disciple who tried to spread the belief of one God of Christianity and therefore forced to escape from the Roman cruelty and seek refuge. As we know from the written sources, this is where Saint Paul stayed for three years from 65 to 68, gave famous sermons and told his listeners to embrace one God’s faith
In the 3rd century, Ephesus and its surrounding country were destroyed by Goths. In addition, the entire city was demolished by a severe earthquake that took place around 270 AD. At that time, the Temple, where Artemis cult was still practised, was destroyed by Gothic tribes, and the earthquake resulted in serious consequences for future religious development. Although the temple continued to function until 381 and continued to be worshipped, the people of Ephesus turned to religious imaginations based on salvation. The Egyptian god Serapis and Christian Jesus Christ had grown up and became more popular alternatives to the old official cults.
During the reign of Emperor I. Theodosius in 380 AD, Catholic faith in the empire was imposed
In 431 the third ecumenical consul was held in Ephesus. The city centre was transported to the old port area where public structures, churches and habitats were established. Life in this area lasted until the 14th century. However, at the beginning of the 10th century, a second Byzantine settlement developed around the summit of Ayasuluk Hill. The exchange of power relations manifested itself in the 11th and 13th centuries.
After 1206, for the first time under the sovereignty of the Laskarid Dynasty, a longer peace period was provided. As it is named in Italian sources, the centre of Ephesus / Ayasuluk or Altaluogo settlement was deployed around St. John’s Basilica. Eventually, in 1304 Ephesus passed through the Turks, but continues to be an important centre for Christian crucifixion and is visited by countless travellers on the Holy Land route.
Despite the economic difficulties, Ephesus / Ayasuluk remains an important commercial center and regional maritime power. Ephesus is the most important port of the city of Aydın and after 1348 it became the capital of the empires. The city passes the last years of prosperity at the beginning of the 14th century and at the beginning of the 15th century under the rule of the Aydinids of the Seljuk Emirate.
In 1402 the city was attacked by the Mongols under the command of Timur. After the Mongols had left the city, the emirate was reestablished. After 20 years of power struggles the Ottomans conquered the city in 1425. Prosperity continues throughout the 15th century. But there was a remarkable decline soon. In the 17th century, in this old metropolis, which had been wrecked, only 100 people lived, and malaria was common among people and animals.
By the 20th century, the sand carried by Menderes had extended the lowland to 5 km. Ephesus was abandoned and slowly began to collapse, the ruins of the ancient glorious structures provided a source of raw material, and these ruins were disintegrated, reused, and processed.
In the early modern period, these tremendous ruins, which provide information about Ephesus and Ayasuluk for travel reports and sketches, had been the targets of numerous tradesmen. During the following centuries, the settlement was often mentioned in the descriptions of travellers primarily in English and French sources. Turkish traveller Evliya Çelebi had made the most detailed and best description of the Turkish remains while European travellers mainly deal with ancient relics.